India’s education system can be traced back to around 5000 BC, when the Gurukul system of education was responsible for imparting education in India. The mode of teaching at that time was Sanskrit. With changing times and modern equipment, Education In India experienced a drastic change. The Current Education System In India emphasizes fostering qualities like confidence, good practices, sympathy, and imagination. It is a complete blend of culture, history, and human values. India is a democratic country guided by the principles of the Constitution. Article 21A provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine. To ensure compliance with the said article, the parliament enacted the right to education Act of 2009. Under this act, free and compulsory education is ensured for every child between 3 to 18. India has always paid special attention to the education sector.
Stages of Current Education System in India
The Current Education System in India consists of the following stages:-
- Pre School Stage
This is a stage where a child joins a kindergarten when the child is of 3 - 8 years of age. This stage will include play or activity-based learnings and the improvement of language abilities. It is crucial as the child's 50% brain develops at this stage only.
- School Stage
A child enters a school at the age of 8 or 9 years and remains there till the age of 18, starting from nursery class till class 12. At this stage, a child gets an opportunity to learn lots of subjects. By that time, he develops an interest in them which help him to pursue his higher education. We will discuss the school system in detail further in the article.
- Higher Education Stage
After completing school, a student enters into a college or university at the age of 18 - 19 years. In India, a student first acquires graduate degrees in horticulture, designing, pharmaceutics, and innovation generally requires four years to finish. Law, medication, and engineering can require as long as five years.
After graduation, a person applies for a post-graduation degree from a recognized university. We will discuss this stage in detail further in the article as well.
- Doctoral Stage
This is the last stage in Education in India. After completing post-graduation, a student who wishes to study further applies for Ph.D. and Doctoral courses. It is the highest education qualification that a person can acquire in India. After successfully completing this stage, a student is conferred with the prestigious title of a “Doctor (Dr.).”
School System In India
In India, after the preschool stage, the school system starts from class nursery to class 12. Here, till class 10, a student must study all subjects such as English, Hindi, Maths, science, and human values. After class 12, a student can opt for either arts or commerce or science as per his interest. Understudies need to generally gain proficiency with a typical educational plan until the finish of secondary school. Understudies all through the nation need to learn three dialects, in particular, English, Hindi, and their first language (optional).
Higher Education System In India
Higher Education in India is governed by University Grant Commission. Indian higher education framework has extended at high speed by adding almost 20,000 colleges and more than 8 million understudies in 10 years from 2000-01 to 2010-11. As of 2020, India has more than 1000 colleges and universities, 416 state colleges, 361 private colleges, and 159 Institutes of National Importance, which incorporate AIIMS, IIMs, IIITs, IISERs, IITs, and NITs.
Some of the undergraduate courses in India are as follows:-
- B. Tech
- B. Com
- B. Pharma
Some of the Postgraduate courses in India are as follows:-
- M. Tech
- M. Com
A student can pursue any course after full fulling its requirement from any college or university in India.
Changes in Current Education System In India after the introduction of National Education Policy (NEP)
To improve the Current Education System In India, the Government of India came up with National Education Policy (NEP), 2020. It brought a few significant reforms at both school and college levels. The following are its impact on Education In India:-
- It aims at achieving a 100% gross enrollment ratio in school education by 2030.
- A new higher education governing body will be established, i.e., the Higher Education Commission of India. It will work to improve and innovate India's teaching and learning system.
- The new education policy further aims at making all higher education institutions multidisciplinary by 2040. This means students can take up any course of their interest and skills.
- An undergraduate student will have multiple exit options. A college will provide a degree to students after completing one year of study. However, this is applicable only on diplomas and not on degree courses.
- Now schooling age will be 3 rather than 6. This will aid students to complete their schooling early and save their year from wastage.
India has an openly supported education and development sector, the third biggest on the planet, close to the United States and China. From the above discussion, it is clear that the Current Education System In India is theory-oriented than job-oriented. It focuses more on theory and exams. However, with the new education policy, 2020, there has been a drastic change in the education system in India. Because of the new National Education Policy (NEP), the division of stages have been made to conform to the mental development that a youngster experiences typically. It has become more vibrant and skill-oriented. The literacy ratio of India for adults is 69.3 percent. By 2030, India’s higher education system is expected to have more than 20 universities among the global top 200 universities.