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Types of Evaluation in Education


Evaluations are used to understand the efficacy of students’ learning processes and strategies used by teachers to teach students. It is a great yardstick to analyze whether students have achieved the learning objectives after the completion of a course or topic. Teachers use different kinds of evaluation methodologies to understand where students stand in terms of their performance in academics. It is considered an effective method to ensure the progress of students. Moreover, with the help of evaluation techniques, students and teachers can understand where the learners fall behind in the learning process. Hence, you must have understood how learning and evaluation go hand in hand. In order to improve the quality of education, the evaluation process should simultaneously happen. Let us look at what evaluation is to understand it in a broader sense.  What is Evaluation in education refers to the systematic assessment and analysis of educational programs, processes, and outcomes to determine their effectiveness and make informed decisions for improvement.

What is Evaluation?

Ralph W. Tyler, an American educator has believed to coined the term evaluation in the context of learning and teaching. He has defined evaluation as follows,

Evaluation is "a systematic process of determining the extent to which educational objectives are achieved by pupils"

As mentioned above, evaluation ensures that the students achieve the learning objectives that are set by the educational institution or the relevant authorities. These evaluations are a great way to improve the learning outcomes of the students. When students are evaluated, you as teachers will be able to get an idea about how you can make changes in your teaching methodologies and in their learning styles. These evaluations can help you curate the best learning experiences for your students.

To understand how evaluation can enhance learning and teaching in an educational set-up, let us learn what different levels of evaluation are. The answer to the question of what is evaluation in education is pretty simple, evaluation in education helps in checking or evaluating the knowledge of students. There are several types of evaluation in education. The types of evaluation in education can differ according to the degree or the level of education on which a student is pursuing knowledge.

Evaluation is the art of comparing what should be, and what is, to make a judgment on how to improve performance or decide upon a plan of action. Learning the types of evaluation is an essential tool for individuals still learning, such as students of an educational institution. Without the skill of utilizing types of evaluation in education, it may be hard to see definitive progress in our student lives.

How to understand  types of evaluation in education?

Choosing the correct option from a list of types of evaluation can be made easy by breaking the process into several steps. They are discussed as follows:

  1. Set a common objective or general milestone to be achieved by a student of a specific grade/curriculum.
  2. Set a specific change that is required to be monitored in the character/skillset of the student.
  3.  Check if the current learning material is sufficient to complete those objectives in a given period. If not, plan learning activities to implement the necessary changes.
  4. Choose from a list of types of evaluation such as monitoring classroom behaviour, quizzes, assessments, oral tests, etc.
  5. Use the results as feedback to plan and implement the next steps of action.

What are the levels of evaluation used in a classroom?

Now that we have familiarized ourselves with what is evaluation in education as well as the basic steps of choosing types of evaluation, the next question that arises is, what exactly are these learning and behavioral objectives that should be monitored? They are based on 3 levels of evaluation:


The teacher compares the characteristics of a specific individual based on the common grades and character traits displayed by their classmates. Attention must be paid to underlying socio-economic or learning disadvantages at play.


What is evaluation in education when we consider only one student? The student’s performance in the current period is compared to their performance in an earlier period. For example, the teacher will compare grades received now and in the last semester to check if there is any progress or improvement. 


When the student's performance is interpreted according to the objectives defined by the coursework being undertaken, then it is known as criterion-referencing. There is no mention of other individuals under such types of evaluation in education.

Levels of Evaluation

There are different levels of evaluation to assess the achievement of students. It is not possible to determine the success of a student by solely using a single procedure. These levels use different yardsticks to fathom the achievement of students and assist teachers in evaluating the progress and shortcomings of a student’s performance.

The three levels of evaluation are:

  • Self-referenced
  • Criterion-referenced
  • Norm-referenced


You can refer to the performance of students in the previous tests and how they have improved in the present. In this way, you will be able to assess the progress of the students in their academic endeavors. This is an effective technique to motivate students to perform better.


Any course would have learning objectives and you would expect their students to achieve the objective by the time the course comes to completion. In this type, you will analyze how students are progressing by considering the learning outcomes. You assess whether the students are able to achieve the objectives of the course and if they are progressing in terms of the educational objectives of the course.


Through this type, you will analyze how the students perform in comparison to the other students in the class. You can compare and contrast how students’ performances differ and take necessary steps to bring in changes that can alter the way they learn. This helps them to find out the strategies that work best for them.

Now that you are familiar with the levels of evaluation. Let us learn the different types of evaluation that are generally used to assess students in schools.

Types of Evaluation

There are three types of evaluation that are relevant to students and teachers in an educational institution. The three types of evaluation are:

  1. Formative Evaluation
  2. Summative Evaluation
  3. Diagnostic Evaluation

Let us discuss each of them in a detailed manner so that you can understand them better.

Formative Evaluation

Formative assessment is a common evaluation method used in schools. Teachers or educators conduct formative assessments multiple times in an academic year to motivate students to learn better. Since the evaluation is conducted many a time, you can use this type to help students understand their weaknesses. You can conduct formative assessment tests to understand how students have grasped a particular portion of the curriculum. This would be a great methodology if you are trying to check for understanding of the students.

It will help you to understand the flaws in your teaching strategies and can make alterations accordingly. Moreover, these tests would help you understand your students in a better way. As in, you will be able to understand their learning styles. In this way, you will be able to tailor your pedagogical approach that best suits your students.

Suggested Read: Formative & Summative Assessment Strategies

Summative Evaluation

Summative evaluation tests occur at the end of an academic year or a course. This evaluation plays a key role in a student’s academic career as it determines the promotion of students into the next stage of their learning journey. Students often receive certificates after the completion of summative exams and it would entail information about their scores in the summative exam.

Students' summative assessments play a vital role in getting into good colleges for higher education as they determine their futures. So, you can help students to get better at their studies with the help of formative assessments and help them to score in summative exams for a better future.

Diagnostic Evaluation

Diagnostic evaluations are very similar to formative assessments. This evaluation is helpful in finding the flaws in the learning process of the students. You can use this methodology to aid students in understanding their weaknesses. Once, they are able to understand the shortcomings in their learning, they will be able to make changes in the learning process and excel in their academic endeavors.

Every educational Institution has one main motive- to promote quality education for each student and provide a nurturing learning environment. For this, they upscale campus and teaching quality, constantly adapt new methodologies, and encourage students for overall participation. However, all this is incomplete without the involvement of evaluation. Teachers evaluate the productive and learning capacity of a child with multiple types and stages of evaluation.

What are the main types of Evaluation?

  • Diagnostic Evaluation: Often students fail to grasp a concept yet hide it out of being shy, introverted or simply embarrassed. These weaknesses can be formally determined by a teacher with such diagnostic methodologies.
  • Formative Evaluation: This is the formal widely accepted evaluation method of taking half-yearly and yearly examinations to encourage students to study. Mid-term and monthly theory or practical examinations are also formative methods of testing a child's capabilities, encouraging them to participate and improve.
  • Summative Evaluation: This is the final report of a child, which includes an average or weighted distribution of marks, ultimately showing the class or grade-wise performance of a student. This is extremely useful in maintaining an overall track record of a child's academic progress mostly.

These types of evaluation in education are often used in combination to provide a comprehensive understanding of the educational process and outcomes. Evaluation in education is crucial for continuous improvement and ensuring that educational goals are met effectively. These are types that define what is evaluation in education.

How many Levels of Evaluation are there?

  • Norm-referenced: Commonly used to test a child's ability in comparison to other students of similar age or classroom. Teachers can apply unique methods for different types of students in this way, to make them more productive after identifying their shortcomings.
  • Self-referenced: Yearly reports correspond the most for self-referencing. A child's progress or degradation from past results helps identify methods that worked best for their academic success.
  • Criterion-referenced: Not every child can achieve class goals and course objectives with the same teaching style or learning material. By using a criterion reference, teachers can identify which methods work and which need to be remodelled for students to achieve their class objectives with greater efficiency and understanding.

Understanding the levels and types of evaluation equips the teacher with the right knowledge to proceed with varied test-taking methods in a classroom. Since each type draws a unique result on the intelligence, consistency, and creative part of a child, carefully evaluating them can help both teachers and parents to positively influence these results.

Types of evaluation B.ed notes is also the same as the above mentioned what is evaluation in education. Types of evaluation B.ed notes are Formative, Summative, and diagnostic. These are some of the primary types of evaluation in education as well as types of evaluation B.ed notes.


Evaluation is an integral part of learning and teaching. It is what makes the learning process more efficient and effective for the students. Moreover, it improves the quality of education for the students. In this way, they will be able to achieve greater things in life with the help of this continuous process.

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