The type of framework for determining the level of rigor for an examination is known as the Depth of Knowledge (DoK). Dr. Norman Webb created the DoK in 1997 to categorize activities based on their level of thinking difficulty. The convergence of standards and evaluations led to the formation of the DoK. Standardized tests measured how students thought about a topic and the procedures they learned. However, they did not assess how deeply students needed to understand and be aware of the material to explain answers and provide solutions and transfer what they learned to real-world situations.
This framework is divided into four levels, with level 1 being the most basic and level 4 being the most advanced.
- Recall and reproduction are part of Level 1 (acquired knowledge). Remembering knowledge or defining a procedure are both complex tasks.
- Skills and concepts make up Level 2 (Knowledge Application). To answer questions, students need to apply what they've studied.
- Strategic thinking is required at Level 3 (Analysis). Here, complexity increases, requiring more forethought, rationale, and advanced thinking. It explains how to employ concepts and methods to produce results.
- Extended thinking is Level 4 (Augmentation). This necessitates going beyond traditional learning and asking how further knowledge may be applied in real-world situations.
Why is it important to care about the Depth of Knowledge?
In order to properly comprehend student expectations on a specific assessment, instructors and assessment creators must consider the depth of knowledge (DoK). Some high-stakes assessments, such as SBAC, include DOK in their tests and even advise teachers about which levels of DOK are assessed on their exam blueprints. By focusing on depth of understanding through DOK, educators can better grasp what is required of students and how to prepare them for high-stakes or summative examinations.
Let's take a step back and examine the situation from a new angle. When you give pupils an evaluation, they must complete each question from beginning to end and submit the test. Naturally, some questions take longer to answer, while others require less time. Every question is not created equal, and it's crucial to evaluate the cognitive rigor of the subject students are working through when diving deeper into assessment best practices. Depth of knowledge aids in conceptualizing cognitive rigor by breaking down and categorizing the various mental processes required to solve an issue appropriately.
Educators can identify student comprehension by breaking down and discriminating between the level of thought, or DoK, necessary for each question. Due to digital evaluations' rapid insights and reports, any flaws or areas of misunderstanding become even more apparent. Breaking down question items by DoK can assist instructors in identifying misconceptions and areas where students require additional assistance in thinking through a problem.
In the Classroom with DoK
DOK is not just used for state assessments, it is also used in small-scale school assessments. Since level 3 and 4 tasks are challenging to construct and score, most classroom assessments consist mainly of level 1 and 2 problems. Teachers must, however, guarantee that their pupils are exposed to a variety of tasks of varying levels of difficulty in order for them to learn and grow, as well as to assess whether expectations are met accurately.
This suggests that teachers should create higher-level projects, even if they take more time and effort because they provide benefits that more specific activities do not. They display the whole range of a student's abilities with greater accuracy. A balanced assessment that calls on all depths is excellent for teachers and pupils.
Application of Webb’s DoK
DoK is a better tool for assessing the assessment itself. To put it another way, Bloom supplies the educational framework, whereas DoK examines the details of the tasks. Bloom's taxonomy also demands that pupils master the lower stages of cognition before progressing to the higher levels. So, if the goal is to employ a mathematical formula (application), students must first be able to recognize the formula and understand its essential function (remember and understand). This could imply that the objectives are presented in progressive phases to demonstrate learning advancement. When testing in DoK, pupils move seamlessly through all of the levels.
Similarly, when employing a mathematical formula to solve a problem, pupils recall the knowledge or formula (DoK 1) to solve the problem. (DoKs 2 and 3). The learning may go to DoK 4 depending on the complexity of the problem to be solved.
- Webb's Depth of Knowledge is a concept that divides situations into four levels of rigor - prompts, scenarios, and challenges.
- Students will encounter settings in exams as they go through the DoK levels that require them to study and think at deeper cognitive stages.
- Reciting a math fact may be all that is required for a first-level challenge. A final-level scenario can resolve a real-world problem by combining content from many areas.
Keep in mind the following:
- These context levels appear differently in action depending on the subject and age group.
- To advance to the next level, a learner does not need to "master" learning and reasoning at one level.
- As a teacher, you can teach your pupils at various levels using a variety of activities, evaluations, and assignments.
The crucial point when it comes to DoK is that students think profoundly regularly, regardless of how you define rigor. Webb's Depth of Knowledge provides you with a structure and a common language to help you do just that in your classroom.
We sincerely hope this piece on Webb’s Depth of Knowledge has been helpful and informative. DoK is an integral part of exam design and development, so it is important that people who are in the field have a clear idea of the concept and what it entails.