Dr. Ruben Puentedura created the SAMR model, which provides a platform for demonstrating the effects of technology on learning and teaching. The model progresses through a number of stages, starting with a basic level of learning in the substitution phase and progressing to a level of transformational learning at the redefinition level. The letters “SAMR” stand for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. The SAMR model was developed to help teachers share a common dialect across disciplines as they strive to personalize learning and assist students in visualizing complicated concepts. When integrated classroom technology makes teaching and learning a smoother experience for teachers and students, the SAMR Model can be incredibly useful.
Let us now have a look at all the four stages in detail, it must be noted that the use of educational technology (EdTech) becomes more refined at each stage of the SAMR model.
This is the most basic stage, in which EdTech is used as a direct replacement for traditional practices. Substitution strategies can help educators save time and room by reducing tedious pen and paper activities. This serves as a better way to store and manage resources rather than having all the information printed and shoved in the cupboard.
Substitution is a much more approachable way to learn technological soft skills than modification and redefinition. It's the ideal time for students to become acquainted with new technology before the teachers begin to modify their learning. Basically, this involves the use of digital technology for the replacement of analog technology, but this replacement has no functional impact.
For Example :
- Instead of writing notes by hand in a notebook, students can type them up on a word processor.
- Online quizzes and tests can be used rather than pen and paper.
- Instead of a traditional whiteboard, the use of an interactive digital whiteboard can be made and save the outcome as a file, etc.
At the augmentation stage, to supplement the learning task, digital technology is used in a functional way. Technology contributes to the learning process in ways other than convenience. Again, technology is used directly in place of a traditional tool or technique, but with massive improvements to the student experience. It may provide your students with a better understanding of a complicated subject or make it more engaging in ways that traditional methods fail to.
It also enables the introduction of more self-directed and student-centered learning. Students can proceed with active learning without the need for constant teacher-led instruction by using technology as an information source.
For Example :
- Students give extra insightful and participating oral presentations when they are accompanied by a PowerPoint that includes multimedia elements.
- Students utilize the internet to conduct independent research on a topic rather than relying on teacher input.
- Students use an EdTech program that gamifies curriculum content for student engagement and makes it easy to track progress.
- Writing a paper using the inner features of Google Docs. Search functionality and spell check are among these features. Voice typing, Exploration, etc.
During the modification stage, technology is used to create dynamic and interactive activities that extend well beyond the constraints of conventional teaching. This is a real chance for the lesson's design and learning outcome, rather than a replacement or enhancement. At this stage, digital technology is used to completely revamp a learning activity.
Technologically enhanced tasks also enable students to produce motivated and creative work that is not limited to paper. Few students will jump at the chance to appear in front of a camera, while others will go to any length to climb the global Mathletics leaderboard.
- Students create podcasts summing up a topic, which other students can use as a revision tool.
- In lieu of a traditional oral presentation, students can create an informative video presentation. They can use their voice in conjunction with a broader range of creative multidimensional components.
Redefinition is the most advanced stage of SAMR, in which you use technology to create completely new ways of learning. The final stage exemplifies how integrated classroom technology can change a student's experience. At this level, technology is used transformatively to develop new academic tasks that would not have been created normally.
Learning can be redefined in order to link it with the actual world and produce authentic results. It also teaches students important technological soft skills like digital collaboration, interaction, technological literacy, and the ability to adapt to new structures and procedures. It also involves using technology to reinvent learning in the classroom resulting in thriving, involved students who embody a growth mindset.
- As part of the learning process, connecting the students with people all over the world contributes to better learning.
- Recording students while they give a presentation or practice a physical skill, then using the recorded session to prompt student reflection can be very helpful.
Combining SAMR with Webb’s DOK
A lot of teachers understand that different students require different methods of teaching, but not all teachers take the initiative to change the way they teach. Using a combination of SAMR and Webb’s Depth of Knowledge, teachers can find the right balance between different types of students and the various learning styles and abilities. It is wrong to think that more technology leads to greater learning, higher-order thinking, and increased interest in students - too much of anything will lead to more problems. Now, even though SAMR and Webb’s Depth of Knowledge can be used in sync to help students enhance their learning experience, it must be remembered that they are used for different reasons and in completely different contexts.
Tips to Use SAMR Model Effectively
While teachers might know about the SAMR model, they might not have a grasp of when or where to use it so as to make it effective in the classroom. So given below are a few tips to make use of the SAMR Model in an effective and productive way:
Use SAMR Only When Appropriate
Simply using a method just because you know it does not make its use effective. There should be a significant advantage to using the SAMR model in the classroom. Only when it serves a purpose, and only when the teacher knows how to use it, should SAMR be used in the classroom.
Focus on Collaboration
It has been proven time and again that collaboration plays a very significant role in education and it can be achieved most effectively through the use of the SAMR model.
Use Technology to Connect Students to the Outside World
Make sure that the use of technology not only does not hinder their outer world experience but also improves it by aiding in their outward attitude. This not only helps them in improving their understanding of their surroundings and mindfulness, but it can also be great in building key literacy skills.
SAMR resources essentially consist of planning tools that aid in the development of quality learning activities for students. The framework offers instructional guidance on how technology ought to be used in the classroom. It is a framework that allows teachers to assess and evaluate educational technologies. Computer technology becomes much more important in the classroom as teachers progress along the continuum, but it also becomes more seamlessly entwined into the demands of good learning and teaching.
There are several other benefits that make this model attractive like the substitution of computing technology for paper could result in a lower carbon footprint, making this method more environmentally sustainable. Moreover, the content on learning sites can be accessed worldwide, giving everyone a fair chance and access to academic resources. Finally making use of sources from the internet aids in saving time and money.
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